Board of Directors

James Topper, M.D., Ph.D.

James N. Topper, M.D., Ph.D. has served as a member of our board of directors since September 2011. Since 2005, Dr. Topper has also served as the Managing General Partner at Frazier Healthcare Partners, a venture capital firm, with whom he served as a Partner from 2003 to 2005. Prior to that, from 2002 to 2003, Dr. Topper served as head of the Cardiovascular Research and Development Division at Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company. Since June 2016, Dr. Topper has served as a member of the board of directors of Alpine lmmunosciences Inc., a biotechnology company (NASDAQ: ALPN), since May 2016, Dr. Topper has served as a member of the board of directors of Aptinyx Inc., a biopharmaceutical company, since March 2016, Dr. Topper has served as a member of the board of directors of Entasis Therapeutics Inc., a pharmaceutical company, and since July 2012 he has served on the board of Millendo Therapeutics, a pharmaceutical company. In addition, from April 2014 to March 2017, Dr. Topper served as a member of the board of directors of Sierra Oncology, Inc, (formerly ProNai Therapeutics, Inc.), an oncology company (NASDAQ: DNAI), since September 2011, Dr. Topper has served as a member of the board of directors of Alcresta Therapeutics, Inc., a specialty pharmaceutical company, and since 2007, Dr. Topper has served as a member of the board of directors of AnaptysBio, Inc., a biotechnology company (NASDAQ: ANAB). Dr. Topper is also a member of the board of directors of MavuPharma (since July 2016). From March 2011 to December 2013, Dr. Topper served as a member of the board of directors of Portola Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company (NASDAQ: PTLA), and from 2004 to April 2015 as a member of the board of directors of Amicus Therapeutics, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company (NASDAQ: FOLD). Dr. Topper received a B.S. in biology from the University of Michigan and an M.D. and a Ph.D. in biophysics from Stanford University. We believe that Dr. Topper’s experience overseeing Frazier Healthcare investments in biotechnology, senior-management experience in our industry, significant knowledge of medical and scientific matters affecting our business, and understanding of our industry provide him with the qualifications and skills to serve on our board of directors.