alna-10q_20200331.htm

 

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from __________________ to  __________________

Commission File Number: 001-38268

 

ALLENA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

 

Delaware

45-2729920

( State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

One Newton Executive Park, Suite 202

Newton, Massachusetts

02462

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (617) 467-4577

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

 

Title of each class

Trading symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share

ALNA

The Nasdaq Global Select Market

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes      No    

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  

  

Small reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth Company

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

 

As of May 1, 2020, the registrant had 24,742,146 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, outstanding.

 

 


 

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements. These statements include all matters that are not related to present facts or current conditions or that are not historical facts, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenue, projected costs, prospects, plans, objectives of management and expected market growth. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “continue,” “should,” “predict,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potentially,” “will,” “may,” “would,” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements.

We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, regarding, among other things:

 

our estimates and expectations regarding our capital requirements, cash and expense levels, liquidity sources and our need for additional financing;

 

the design and conduct of our planned Phase 3 clinical program of reloxaliase (formerly ALLN-177) in enteric hyperoxaluria;

 

our ability to utilize the accelerated approval regulatory pathway for reloxaliase, including the timing of any Biologic License Application, or BLA, submission utilizing the accelerated approval regulatory pathway;

 

the number, designs, results and timing of our clinical trials, including our pivotal Phase 3 program or reloxaliase, and preclinical studies and the timing of the availability of data from these trials and studies;

 

our ability to enroll a sufficient number of patients  (including as a result of any delays arising from the recent global outbreak of the coronavirus, or the COVID-19 coronavirus, which originated in Wuhan, China) and the ability of subjects in our clinical trials to adhere to the protocol, including capsule and dietary regimen and urinary collection requirements;

 

the therapeutic benefits, effectiveness and safety of reloxaliase, ALLN-346 and our future product candidates;

 

our ability to receive regulatory approval for our product candidates in the United States, Europe and other geographies;

 

our expected regulatory approval pathway, and our ability to obtain, on satisfactory terms or at all, the financing required to support operations, development, clinical trials, and commercialization of products;

 

our reliance on third parties for the planning, conduct and monitoring of clinical trials and for the manufacture of clinical drug supplies and drug product;

 

potential changes in regulatory requirements, and delays or negative outcomes from the regulatory approval process;

 

our estimates of the size and characteristics of the markets that may be addressed by reloxaliase and ALLN-346;

 

the market acceptance of reloxaliase, ALLN-346 or any future product candidates that are approved for marketing in the United States or other countries;

 

our ability to successfully commercialize reloxaliase with a targeted sales force;

 

the safety and efficacy of therapeutics marketed by our competitors that are targeted to indications which our product candidates have been developed to treat;

 


 

 

the impact of natural disasters, global pandemics (including the recent outbreak of a novel strain of the COVID-19 coronavirus), labor disputes, lack of raw material supply, issues with facilities and equipment or other forms of disruption to business operations at our manufacturing facilities;

 

our ability to utilize our proprietary technological approach to develop and commercialize ALLN-346 and future product candidates;

 

potential collaborators to license and commercialize reloxaliase, if approved, or any products for which we receive regulatory approval in the future outside of the United States;

 

our heavy dependence on licensed intellectual property, including our ability to source and maintain licenses from third-party owners;

 

our ability to protect our intellectual property and operate our business without infringing upon the intellectual property rights of others;

 

our ability to attract, retain and motivate key personnel; and

 

our ability to generate revenue and become profitable;

.

These risks are not exhaustive. Other sections of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q may include additional factors that could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in, or implied by, any forward-looking statements.

We have included important factors in the cautionary statements included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, particularly in the “Risk Factors” section, that we believe could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make. No forward-looking statement is a guarantee of future performance.

You should read this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and the documents that we reference in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q is a part completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. The forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q represent our views as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments will cause our views to change. However, while we may elect to update these forward-looking statements at some point in the future, we have no current intention of doing so except to the extent required by applicable law. You should, therefore, not rely on these forward-looking statements as representing our views as of any date subsequent to the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

 

 

 


 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

Page

PART I.

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

2

Item 1.

Financial Statements (Unaudited)

2

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

2

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

3

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

4

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

5

 

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

6

Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

13

Item 3.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

22

Item 4.

Controls and Procedures

22

PART II.

OTHER INFORMATION

24

Item 1.

Legal Proceedings

24

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

24

Item 2.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

71

Item 3.

Defaults Upon Senior Securities

71

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

71

Item 5.

Other Information

71

Item 6.

Exhibits

72

Signatures

73

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1


 

PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.

Financial Statements.

Allena Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(unaudited)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

 

 

March 31,

2020

 

 

December 31,

2019

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

20,451

 

 

$

30,007

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

2,316

 

 

 

3,028

 

Total current assets

 

 

22,767

 

 

 

33,035

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

360

 

 

 

401

 

Operating lease assets

 

 

421

 

 

 

549

 

Other assets

 

 

123

 

 

 

123

 

Total assets

 

$

23,671

 

 

$

34,108

 

Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

1,739

 

 

$

3,048

 

Loan payable, net of discount

 

 

3,992

 

 

 

3,992

 

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

 

1,864

 

 

 

3,370

 

Operating lease liabilities, net of discount

 

 

428

 

 

 

498

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

8,023

 

 

 

10,908

 

Loan payable, net of current portion and discount

 

 

4,990

 

 

 

5,988

 

Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion and discount

 

 

 

 

 

14

 

Total liabilities

 

 

13,013

 

 

 

16,910

 

Commitments and contingencies (Note 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Undesignated preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 5,000,000 shares authorized;

   no shares issued or outstanding

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock, $0.001 par value; 125,000,000 shares authorized; 24,742,146 and

   24,735,009 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2020 and December

   31, 2019, respectively

 

 

25

 

 

 

25

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

183,162

 

 

 

182,117

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(172,529

)

 

 

(164,944

)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

 

10,658

 

 

 

17,198

 

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

$

23,671

 

 

$

34,108

 

 

See accompanying notes.

 

2


 

Allena Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

(unaudited)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

$

4,646

 

 

$

9,128

 

General and administrative

 

 

2,878

 

 

 

2,431

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

7,524

 

 

 

11,559

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(7,524

)

 

 

(11,559

)

Other income (expense):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest income (expense), net

 

 

(54

)

 

 

151

 

Other expense, net

 

 

(7

)

 

 

(11

)

Other income (expense), net

 

 

(61

)

 

 

140

 

Net loss

 

$

(7,585

)

 

$

(11,419

)

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders—basic and

   diluted

 

$

(0.31

)

 

$

(0.55

)

Weighted-average common shares outstanding—basic and diluted

 

 

24,737,127

 

 

 

20,814,715

 

Net loss

 

$

(7,585

)

 

$

(11,419

)

Comprehensive loss

 

$

(7,585

)

 

$

(11,419

)

 

See accompanying notes.

 

 

 

3


 

Allena Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

(unaudited)

(in thousands, except share amounts)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Additional

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

Common stock

 

 

paid-in

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

stockholders’

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

capital

 

 

deficit

 

 

equity

 

Balance at December 31, 2018

 

 

20,809,025

 

 

$

21

 

 

$

167,040

 

 

$

(117,605

)

 

$

49,456

 

Exercise of common stock options

 

 

7,039

 

 

 

 

 

 

13

 

 

 

 

 

 

13

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

629

 

 

 

 

 

 

629

 

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(11,419

)

 

 

(11,419

)

Balance at March 31, 2019

 

 

20,816,064

 

 

$

21

 

 

$

167,682

 

 

$

(129,024

)

 

$

38,679

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance at December 31, 2019

 

 

24,735,009

 

 

$

25

 

 

$

182,117

 

 

$

(164,944

)

 

$

17,198

 

Exercise of common stock options

 

 

7,137

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,035

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,035

 

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(7,585

)

 

 

(7,585

)

Balance at March 31, 2020

 

 

24,742,146

 

 

$

25

 

 

$

183,162

 

 

$

(172,529

)

 

$

10,658

 

 

 

See accompanying notes.

 

 

 

4


 

Allena Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(unaudited)

(in thousands)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Cash flows from operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(7,585

)

 

$

(11,419

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

1,035

 

 

 

629

 

Depreciation expense

 

 

41

 

 

 

40

 

Non-cash interest expense

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

 

Amortization of operating lease assets

 

 

128

 

 

 

 

Non-cash lease expense

 

 

6

 

 

 

125

 

Changes in assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

712

 

 

 

1,510

 

Other assets

 

 

 

 

 

(144

)

Accounts payable

 

 

(1,309

)

 

 

534

 

Accrued expenses

 

 

(1,498

)

 

 

(962

)

Operating lease liabilities

 

 

(90

)

 

 

(125

)

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(8,558

)

 

 

(9,810

)

Cash flows from investing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of property and equipment

 

 

 

 

 

(84

)

Net cash used in investing activities

 

 

 

 

 

(84

)

Cash flows from financing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from exercise of stock options

 

 

10

 

 

 

13

 

Repayment of loan payable

 

 

(1,000

)

 

 

 

Other

 

 

(8

)

 

 

(7

)

Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities

 

 

(998

)

 

 

6

 

Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents

 

 

(9,556

)

 

 

(9,888

)

Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period

 

 

30,007

 

 

 

61,643

 

Cash and cash equivalents, end of period

 

$

20,451

 

 

$

51,755

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Supplemental disclosures:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange of operating lease obligations

 

$

 

 

$

992

 

 

See accompanying notes.

 

 

5

 


 

Allena Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

(Unaudited)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

1. Nature of Business

Allena Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the “Company”) is a late-stage clinical biopharmaceutical company dedicated to developing and commercializing first-in-class, oral enzyme therapeutics to treat patients with rare and severe metabolic and kidney disorders. The Company is focused on metabolic disorders that result in excess accumulation of certain metabolites that can cause kidney stones, damage the kidney, and potentially lead to chronic kidney disease (“CKD”) and end-stage renal disease. The Company’s lead product candidate, reloxaliase (formerly known as ALLN-177), is a first-in-class, oral enzyme therapeutic that it is developing for the treatment of hyperoxaluria, a metabolic disorder commonly associated with kidney stones, CKD and other serious kidney diseases. The Company was incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on June 24, 2011 and is located in Newton, Massachusetts.

The Company is subject to risks common to companies in the biotechnology industry, including but not limited to, risks of failure of preclinical studies and clinical trials, the need to obtain marketing approval for any drug product candidate that it may identify and develop, the need to successfully commercialize and gain market acceptance of its product candidates, dependence on key personnel, protection of proprietary technology, compliance with government regulations, development by competitors of technological innovations, reliance on third party manufacturers, ability to transition from pilot-scale manufacturing to large-scale production of products and the need to obtain adequate additional financing to fund the development of its product candidates.

Liquidity and Going Concern

The Company had an accumulated deficit of $172.5 million at March 31, 2020, and will require substantial additional capital to fund operations. The future success of the Company is dependent on its ability to identify and develop its product candidates and ultimately upon its ability to attain profitable operations. At March 31, 2020, the Company had $20.5 million of cash and cash equivalents.  The Company’s available cash and cash equivalents as of March 31, 2020 are not sufficient to fund the Company’s current operating plan for at least the next twelve months following the filing of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. The Company requires additional capital to sustain its operations, including its reloxaliase development program. Management is working to seek additional funds through equity or debt financings or through collaborations, licensing transactions or other sources. The Company may be unable to obtain equity or debt financings or enter into collaboration or licensing transactions. Market volatility resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic or other factors could also adversely impact the Company’s ability to access capital as and when needed. The failure to obtain sufficient funds when needed would have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition and jeopardize its ability to continue operations.  The Company may implement cost reduction strategies, which may include amending, delaying, limiting, reducing, or terminating one or more of its ongoing or planned clinical trials or development programs of its product candidates. These factors raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and satisfaction of liabilities in the ordinary course of business. The condensed consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of recorded asset amounts or the amounts and classification of liabilities that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation

The Company’s unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”). Any reference in these notes to applicable guidance is meant to refer to the authoritative United States generally accepted accounting principles as found in the Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) and Accounting Standards Updates (ASU) of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”). Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted from this report, as is permitted by such rules and regulations.  Accordingly, these financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019 and notes thereto, included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the SEC on March 16, 2020.  The unaudited interim consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited financial statements. In the opinion of the Company’s management, the accompanying unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements contain all adjustments which

 

6


 

are necessary to present fairly the Company’s financial position as of March 31, 2020, the results of its operations for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and March 31, 2019 and cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and March 31, 2019. Such adjustments are of a normal and recurring nature. The results for the three months ended March 31, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results for the year ending December 31, 2020, or for any future period.

Principles of Consolidation

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Allena Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries Allena Pharmaceuticals Security Corporation (“Security Corporation”), which was incorporated in December 2014, and Allena Pharmaceuticals Ireland Limited, which was incorporated in March 2017. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

Fair value is defined as the price that would be received upon sale of an asset or paid to transfer a liability between market participants at measurement dates. ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurement (“ASC 820”), establishes a three-level valuation hierarchy for instruments measured at fair value. The hierarchy is based on the transparency of inputs to the valuation of an asset or liability as of the measurement date. The hierarchy defines three levels of valuation inputs, of which the first two are considered observable and the last is considered unobservable:

 

Level 1

inputs: Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

 

Level 2

inputs: Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are either directly or indirectly observable, such as quoted market prices, interest rates and yield curves.

 

Level 3

inputs: Unobservable inputs developed using estimates or assumptions developed by the Company, which reflect those that a market participant would use in pricing the asset or liability.

To the extent that the valuation is based on models or inputs that are less observable or unobservable in the market, the determination of fair value requires more judgment. Accordingly, the degree of judgment exercised by the Company in determining fair value is greatest for instruments categorized in Level 3. A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement.

The remainder of the Company’s significant accounting policies are described in the Annual Report filed on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 that was filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission on March 16, 2020.

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements  

 In 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement (“ASU 2018-13”), which modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements.  The new guidance became effective for the Company on January 1, 2020.  The adoption of ASU 2018-13 did not have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.

In 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other—Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract (“ASU 2018-15”). This guidance aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal-use software license). The accounting for the service element of a hosting arrangement that is a service contract is not affected. This guidance became effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The amendments in this update are able to be applied either retrospectively or prospectively to all implementation costs incurred after the date of adoption. Accordingly, the Company adopted ASU 2018-15 effective January 1, 2020, and it elected to apply this guidance on a prospective basis. There was no impact to the condensed consolidated financial statements due to the adoption of this guidance.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements  

In 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016-13”), which requires entities to record expected credit losses for certain

 

7


 

financial instruments, including trade receivables, as an allowance that reflects the entity's current estimate of credit losses expected to be incurred.  For available-for-sale debt securities in unrealized loss positions, ASU 2016-13 requires allowances to be recorded instead of reducing the amortized cost of the investment.  ASU 2016-13 is effective for smaller reporting companies on January 1, 2023.  Early adoption is permitted.  The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-13 will have a material impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements.

In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”), which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. The new guidance will become effective for the Company on January 1, 2020.  Early adoption is permitted.  The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2019-12 will have a material impact on condensed consolidated financial statements.

3. Net Loss per Share

Basic net loss per share is calculated by dividing the net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period, without consideration for potentially dilutive securities. The Company has computed diluted net loss per common share after giving consideration to all potentially dilutive common shares, including options to purchase common stock, restricted stock units and warrants to purchase common stock, outstanding during the period determined using the treasury-stock and if-converted methods, except where the effect of including such securities would be antidilutive. Because the Company has reported net losses since inception, these potential common shares have been anti-dilutive and basic and diluted loss per share have been the same.

Basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders was calculated as follows (in thousands, except share and per share data):

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Numerator:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(7,585

)

 

$

(11,419

)

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

 

$

(7,585

)

 

$

(11,419

)

Denominator:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted-average common shares—basic and diluted

 

 

24,737,127

 

 

 

20,814,715

 

Net loss per share attributable to common

   stockholders—basic and diluted

 

$

(0.31

)

 

$

(0.55

)

 

The following table sets forth the potentially dilutive securities that have been excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share because to include them would be anti-dilutive (in common stock equivalent shares):

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Warrants

 

 

9,040

 

 

 

9,040

 

Stock options

 

 

3,849,951

 

 

 

2,956,726

 

Restricted stock units

 

 

517,750

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

4,376,741

 

 

 

2,965,766

 

 

 

8


 

4. Fair Value Measurements

The following tables present information about the Company’s financial assets and liabilities that have been measured at fair value at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, and indicates the fair value hierarchy of the valuation inputs utilized to determine such fair value (in thousands):

 

Description

 

March 31,

2020

 

 

Quoted

Prices

in Active

Markets

(Level 1)

 

 

Significant

Other

Observable

Inputs

(Level 2)

 

 

Significant

Unobservable

Inputs

(Level 3)

 

Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Money market funds, included in cash and cash equivalents

 

$

20,160

 

 

$

20,160

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Total assets

 

$

20,160

 

 

$

20,160

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

Description

 

December 31,

2019

 

 

Quoted

Prices

in Active

Markets

(Level 1)

 

 

Significant

Other

Observable

Inputs

(Level 2)

 

 

Significant

Unobservable

Inputs

(Level 3)

 

Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Money market funds, included in cash and cash equivalents

 

$

29,592

 

 

$

29,592

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

Total assets

 

$

29,592

 

 

$

29,592

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

At March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, all of the Company’s cash equivalents were comprised of money market funds.

There were no changes to the valuation methods during the three months ended March 31, 2020 and the year ended December 31, 2019. There were no transfers within the fair value hierarchy during the three months ended March 31, 2020 and the year ended December 31, 2019.

The carrying amounts reflected in the consolidated balance sheets for cash and cash equivalents, prepaid expenses and other current assets, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate their carrying values. The Company believes the terms of the loan payable reflect current market conditions for an instrument with similar terms and maturity, therefore the carrying value of the Company’s debt approximates its fair value based on Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy.

5. Accrued Expenses

Accrued expenses consist of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

March 31,

2020

 

 

December 31,

2019

 

Payroll and employee-related expenses

 

$

1,303

 

 

$

1,250

 

Third-party research and development expenses

 

 

293

 

 

 

1,393

 

Professional fees

 

 

195

 

 

 

229

 

Restructuring charges

 

 

6

 

 

 

373

 

Loan interest

 

 

39

 

 

 

43

 

Other

 

 

28

 

 

 

82

 

Total accrued expenses

 

$

1,864

 

 

$

3,370

 

 

 

9


 

6. Restructuring Charges

 

On November 29, 2019, following the completion of a strategic review of its business, the Company's Board of Directors approved a workforce reduction plan, or the Workforce Reduction, to reduce its workforce headcount by approximately 38%. The Company evaluated the related employee severance and other benefits to employees in connection with the Workforce Reduction to determine whether the benefits were within the scope ASC 712, Compensation - Non-retirement Post-employment Benefits, or within the scope of ASC 420, Exit or Disposal Cost Obligations, depending on the nature of the benefit and whether it is part of an on-going benefit arrangement under ASC 712 or a one-time termination benefit unique to the Workforce Reduction. The Company recorded restructuring expense of $0.6 million at the time of the Workforce Reduction, pursuant to ASC 420 as the Company did not have an on-going benefit arrangement under ASC 712. The Workforce Reduction was complete as of December 31, 2019.

 

Activity related to the Company’s accrued restructuring charges during the three months ended March 31, 2020 is as follows:

 

Accrued restructuring charges at December 31, 2019

 

$

373

 

Amounts paid through March 31, 2020

 

 

(367

)

Accrued restructuring charges at March 31, 2020

 

$

6

 

 

 

7. Commitments and Contingencies

The Company is a party to operating leases for approximately 7,795 square feet of office space in Newton, MA (Newton Lease), and for approximately 7,564 square feet of laboratory and office space in Sudbury, MA (Sudbury Lease).  The Newton Lease expires on December 31, 2020 and the Sudbury Lease expires on February 28, 2021.  Annualized base rent for the Newton Lease and the Sudbury lease is approximately $0.3 million and $0.2 million, respectively.   

Maturities of the Company’s operating lease liabilities in accordance with ASC 842 as of March 31, 2020 are as follows (in thousands):

 

Remainder of 2020

 

$

408

 

2021

 

 

30

 

Total maturities

 

 

438

 

Less: Amount representing interest

 

 

(10

)

Present value of operating lease liabilities

 

$

428

 

 

Lease costs included in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss for each of the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 was $0.1 million.  The Company’s operating leases had a weighted average remaining lease term of 0.8 years and a weighted average discount rate of 5.5% at March 31, 2020.

 

8. Loan and Security Agreement

            On June 29, 2018 the Company entered into a loan agreement with Pacific Western Bank (“PWB Loan Agreement”) providing up to $12.0 million of borrowings, of which $10.0 million was advanced on June 29, 2018.  The remaining $2.0 million of borrowings available under the PWB Loan Agreement were available to the Company through one additional advance request until December 31, 2019.  Borrowings are secured by a lien on all Company assets, excluding intellectual property, and amounts borrowed have a floating per annum interest rate of the greater of 5.0% or the prime rate.  The PWB Loan Agreement has a term of 48 months and an interest only period of 18 months.  Upon the expiration of the interest only period on December 31, 2019, amounts borrowed will be repaid over 30 equal monthly payments of principal plus accrued but unpaid interest. At its option, the Company may prepay all, but not less than all, of the outstanding borrowings subject to a prepayment premium as defined in the Loan Agreement.  Upon the closing of one or more financings, in which the Company receives aggregate gross proceeds of at least $25 million, a success fee of $300,000 will be due and payable to PWB.  The Company’s obligation to pay this Success Fee survives termination of the Agreement.           

The PWB Loan Agreement contains negative covenants restricting the Company’s activities, including limitations on dispositions, mergers or acquisitions, incurring indebtedness or liens, paying dividends or making investments and certain other business transactions. There are no financial covenants associated with the PWB Loan Agreement. The obligations under

 

10


 

the PWB Loan Agreement are subject to acceleration upon the occurrence of specified events of default, including a material adverse change in the Company’s business, operations or financial or other condition. The Company has determined that the risk of subjective acceleration under the material adverse events clause is remote and therefore has classified the outstanding principal based on scheduled principal payments.

The Company evaluated the PWB Loan Agreement for embedded features that require bifurcation, noting certain features were required to be bifurcated, but were concluded to be de minimis in value at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019.

 

9. Stockholders’ Deficit

Common Stock

The holders of common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held. Common stockholders are not entitled to receive dividends, unless declared by the Board of Directors.

The Company has reserved for future issuances the following shares of common stock as of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019:

 

 

 

March 31,

2020

 

 

December 31,

2019

 

Warrants

 

 

9,040

 

 

 

9,040

 

Stock options and restricted stock units

 

 

6,052,566

 

 

 

5,070,303

 

Employee stock purchase plan

 

 

380,005

 

 

 

380,005

 

Total

 

 

6,441,611

 

 

 

5,459,348

 

 

10. Stock Incentive Plan    

On October 31, 2017, the Company adopted the 2017 Stock Option and Incentive Plan (“2017 Plan”).  Upon the adoption of the 2017 Plan, no further grants would be made under the 2011 Stock Incentive Plan (“2011 Plan”).  The 2017 Plan initially provided for the grant of awards for 2,038,021 shares of common stock.  In addition to the shares available for grant under the 2017 Plan, any awards outstanding under the 2011 Plan as of the October 31, 2017 are cancelled, forfeited or otherwise terminated without being exercised, the number of shares underlying such awards will be available for future grant under the 2017 Plan. The 2017 Plan also provides that an additional number of shares will automatically be added to the shares authorized for issuance under the 2017 Plan on January 1 of each year. The number of shares added each year will be equal to the lesser of: (i) 4% of the outstanding shares on the immediately preceding December 31 or (ii) such amount as determined by the Compensation Committee of the registrant’s Board of Directors.   On January 1, 2018, 2019 and 2020, the shares available for grant under the 2017 Plan was automatically increased by 827,786, 832,361 and 989,400 shares, respectively.

All of the Company’s employees, officers, directors, consultants and advisors are eligible to be granted options, restricted stock units (“RSUs”), and other share-based awards under the terms of the 2017 Plan.  As of March 31, 2020, 1,684,865 shares of common stock were available for future grant under the 2017 Plan.

All stock option grants are nonstatutory stock options except option grants to employees (including officers and directors) intended to qualify as incentive stock options under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. Incentive stock options may not be granted at less than the fair market value of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant, as determined in good faith by the Board of Directors at its sole discretion. Nonqualified stock options may be granted at an exercise price established by the Board of Directors at its sole discretion (which has not been less than fair market value on the date of grant) and the vesting periods may vary. Vesting periods are generally four years and are determined by the Board of Directors or a delegated subcommittee. Stock options become exercisable as they vest. Options granted under both the 2011 Plan and 2017 Plan expire no more than 10 years from the date of grant.

 

11


 

Stock-based compensation expense included in the Company’s statements of operations and comprehensive loss is as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Research and development

 

$

428

 

 

$

255

 

General and administrative

 

 

607

 

 

 

374

 

Total

 

$

1,035

 

 

$

629

 

 

The fair value of each stock option granted to employees and directors during the three months ended March 31, 2019 was estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, with the following range of assumptions as follows:

 

Risk-free interest rate

 

2.5%-2.6%

Expected dividend yield

 

—%

Expected term (in years)

 

5.8-6.8

Expected volatility

 

82%

 

The Company did not grant any stock options during the three months ended March 31, 2020.  A summary of the stock option activity under the 2011 and 2017 Plans is as follows:

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Weighted-

Average

Exercise

Price

 

 

Weighted-

Average

Remaining

Contractual

Life

(in years)

 

 

Aggregate

Intrinsic

Value

(in thousands)

 

Outstanding at December 31, 2019

 

 

3,915,591

 

 

 

4.33

 

 

 

8.1

 

 

$

1,921

 

Granted

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exercised

 

 

(7,137

)

 

 

1.31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cancelled

 

 

(58,503

)

 

 

6.45

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Outstanding at March 31, 2020

 

 

3,849,951

 

 

$

4.30

 

 

 

7.8

 

 

$

30

 

Exercisable at March 31, 2020

 

 

1,863,318

 

 

$

3.61

 

 

 

6.5

 

 

$

30

 

As of March 31, 2020, total unrecognized stock-based compensation expense relating to unvested stock options was $6.4 million. This amount is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.6 years.

Restricted Stock Units (RSUs)

In December 2019, the Company made awards of time-based RSUs to certain employees and officers of the Company.  The Company awarded 517,750 RSUs to employees and officers of the Company. The RSUs vest as to 50% on June 2, 2020 and 50% on December 2, 2020. The RSUs are generally forfeited if the employment relationship terminates with the Company prior to vesting.  For the three months ended March 31, 2020, the Company recognized $0.3 million of stock-based compensation expense related to these awards.  As of March 31, 2020, the total remaining unrecognized compensation cost related to all nonvested RSUs amounted to $0.8 million, which is expected to be recognized during 2020.

A summary of the status of nonvested RSUs as of March 31, 2020 and the changes during the three months then ended are presented below (in thousands, except fair values):

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Weighted-Average

Grant Date

Fair Value

 

Nonvested at December 31, 2019

 

 

517,750

 

 

$

2.42

 

Granted

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vested

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forfeited

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nonvested at March 31, 2020

 

 

517,750

 

 

$

2.42

 

 

 

12


 

Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our unaudited financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 that was filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, on March 16, 2020.

Our actual results and timing of certain events may differ materially from the results discussed, projected, anticipated, or indicated in any forward-looking statements. We caution you that forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and that our actual results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the industry in which we operate may differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report. In addition, even if our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the industry in which we operate are consistent with the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report, they may not be predictive of results or developments in future periods. 

The following information and any forward-looking statements should be considered in light of factors discussed elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including those risks identified under Part II, Item 1A. Risk Factors.

We caution readers not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements made by us, which speak only as of the date they are made. We disclaim any obligation, except as specifically required by law and the rules of the SEC, to publicly update or revise any such statements to reflect any change in our expectations or in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statements may be based, or that may affect the likelihood that actual results will differ from those set forth in the forward-looking statements.

Overview

We are a late-stage, clinical biopharmaceutical company dedicated to developing and commercializing first-in-class, oral enzyme therapeutics to treat patients with rare and severe metabolic and kidney disorders. We are focused on metabolic disorders that result in excess accumulation of certain metabolites that can cause kidney stones, damage the kidney, and potentially lead to chronic kidney disease, or CKD, and end-stage renal disease, or ESRD. Our lead product candidate, reloxaliase (formerly known as ALLN-177), is a first-in-class, oral enzyme therapeutic that we are developing for the treatment of hyperoxaluria, a metabolic disorder characterized by markedly elevated urinary oxalate, or UOx, levels and commonly associated with kidney stones, CKD and ESRD. There are currently no approved therapies for the treatment of hyperoxaluria.

We have conducted a robust clinical development program of reloxaliase, including three Phase 2 clinical trials and the first of two planned Phase 3 clinical trials, which demonstrated significant reductions of UOx excretion in patients with enteric hyperoxaluria. Reloxaliase has also been well tolerated in clinical trials to date. Based on these data, the high unmet medical need, reloxaliase’s specific mechanism of action, and the significant market opportunity, we are initially developing reloxaliase for adult patients with enteric hyperoxaluria.

 

In March 2018, we initiated URIROX-1TM (URIROX-1) (formerly Study 301), the first of our two anticipated Phase 3 clinical trials in support of our planned Biologic License Application, or BLA, for reloxaliase in patients with enteric hyperoxaluria. In November 2019, we announced topline data from the URIROX-1 trial.  URIROX-1 met its primary endpoint, with a mean reduction of 22.6% in average 24-hour UOx excretion measured during Weeks 1-4 among patients treated with reloxaliase, compared to 9.7% in the placebo group (least square, or LS, mean treatment difference of -14.3%, p=0.004).  In the fourth quarter of 2018, we initiated URIROX-2 (formerly Study 302), our second pivotal Phase 3 trial of reloxaliase in patients with enteric hyperoxaluria.  In February 2020, following engagement with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, the Company announced a streamlined design for URIROX-2, based on the higher-than-projected kidney stone event rate and the UOx results observed in the completed URIROX-1 trial. In March 2020, the Company submitted a protocol amendment and associated study documents for the revised trial design to the FDA. The revised trial design is now effective following the 30-day review period and is being implemented in URIROX-2. Despite COVID-19, URIROX-2 is ongoing and study sites remain open for enrollment, although no new sites are being opened. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and subject to the Company’s ability to secure additional financial resources, the Company now expects the interim analysis at the first sample size reassessment in the first quarter of 2022, with topline data for potential BLA submission in the third quarter of 2022. The FDA has advised us that it agrees that, if positive, biomarker data on 24-hour UOx excretion in URIROX-1 and URIROX-2 would be used for a BLA submission for reloxaliase using the accelerated approval regulatory pathway. For the long-term follow-up phase of the trial, subjects would continue in URIROX-2 for a minimum treatment period of two years to confirm clinical benefit post-approval.  

 

13


 

In addition to our Phase 3 program of reloxaliase for enteric hyperoxaluria, we are also evaluating reloxaliase in Study 206, a Phase 2 basket trial in adults and adolescents with primary hyperoxaluria or enteric hyperoxaluria with hyperoxalemia, which we initiated in March 2018.  We announced interim data from Study 206 in June 2019 and topline data in November 2019.  Based on the substantial reductions in both UOx and plasma oxalate, or POx, observed in subjects with enteric hyperoxaluria and hyperoxalemia over Weeks 4 to 12, we are currently exploring a possible registrational path, including a potential expedited development program, for reloxaliase for patients with enteric hyperoxaluria and advanced CKD.

In addition, we have designed our second product candidate, ALLN-346, an orally administered, novel, urate degrading enzyme, for patients with hyperuricemia and gout in the setting of advanced CKD. Hyperuricemia, or elevated levels of uric acid in the blood, results from overproduction or insufficient excretion of urate, or often a combination of the two. ALLN-346 has demonstrated a robust reduction in both plasma and urine uric acid levels in an established urate oxidase knock-out mouse model, a severe animal model of hyperuricemia with advanced CKD and kidney damage due to urate crystal deposition. We filed an IND for ALLN-346 with the FDA in December 2019.  In the first quarter of 2020, we received clearance from the FDA to proceed with first-in-human clinical trials. We have finalized the protocol for the Phase 1 clinical trial, selected a clinical research organization (CRO) and, subject to our ability to secure additional financial resources, are prepared to initiate a Phase 1 clinical trial of ALLN-346 in the second quarter of 2020, with initial data expected in the fourth quarter of 2020.

On November 6, 2017, we completed our IPO, in which we issued and sold 5,333,333 shares of our common stock at a public offering price of $14.00 per share, for aggregate gross proceeds of $74.7 million. The underwriters partially exercised their over-allotment option on December 1, 2017, and purchased 16,969 shares of our common stock, for aggregate gross proceeds of $0.2 million.  As a result of the IPO, we received approximately $67.0 million in net proceeds after deducting $7.9 million of underwriting discounts and commissions and offering costs.

On June 28, 2019, we completed a registered direct offering in which we issued and sold 2,632,092 shares of our common stock, at a purchase price of $3.80 per share, for net proceeds of $9.4 million, after deducting issuance costs, through a securities purchase agreement with the investors.  The shares of common stock sold in this offering were being offered pursuant to our shelf registration statement on Form S-3, or Form S-3, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, which was declared effective on December 26, 2018.

On December 30, 2019, we completed an At-the-Market offering in which we issued and sold 1,243,756 shares of our common stock, at a purchase price of $2.15 per share, for net proceeds of $2.6 million, after deducting issuance costs, through an At-the-Market Equity Offering Sales Agreement.  The shares of common stock sold in this offering were also being offered pursuant to our shelf registration statement on Form S-3 filed with the SEC, which was declared effective on December 26, 2018.

Our operations to date have been limited to organizing and staffing our company, business planning, raising capital, developing our technology, identifying potential product candidates, producing drug substance and drug product material for use in preclinical studies and clinical trials, conducting preclinical studies of our product candidates and clinical trials for our lead product candidate, reloxaliase. We do not have any products approved for sale and have not generated any revenue to date. As of March 31, 2020, we had cash and cash equivalents totaling $20.5 million.

We have incurred significant net operating losses in every year since our inception and expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future. Our net losses may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year. Our net losses were $7.6 million and $11.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. As of March 31, 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of $172.5 million. We anticipate that our expenses will increase significantly as we:

 

conduct future clinical trials of our lead product candidate, reloxaliase;

 

manufacture additional material for our pivotal Phase 3 clinical program and potential future clinical studies we might conduct for our product candidates;

 

scale up our manufacturing process for reloxaliase to prepare for the filing of a potential Biologics License Application, or BLA, and commercialization if our clinical development program is successful;

 

advance the development and conduct future clinical trials of ALLN-346;

 

conduct research on the discovery and development of additional product candidates;

 

seek regulatory and marketing approvals for product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials, if any;

 

establish a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any products for which we may obtain regulatory approval in geographies in which we plan to commercialize our products ourselves;

 

14


 

 

maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio;

 

hire additional staff, including clinical, scientific, technical, operational, and financial personnel, to execute our business plan; and

 

add clinical, scientific, operational, financial and management information systems to support our product development and potential future commercialization efforts, and to enable us to operate as a public company.

We do not expect to generate revenue from product sales unless and until we successfully complete development and obtain regulatory approval for a product candidate. Additionally, we currently use contract research organizations, or CROs, and contract manufacturing organizations, or CMOs, to carry out our preclinical and clinical development activities. We do not yet have a sales organization. If we obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, we expect to incur significant commercialization expenses related to product sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution. Furthermore, we expect to incur additional costs associated with operating as a public company. Accordingly, we may seek to fund our operations through public or private equity or debt financings or other sources, including strategic collaborations. We may, however, be unable to raise additional funds or enter into such other arrangements when needed on favorable terms or at all. Our failure to raise capital or enter into such other arrangements as and when needed would have a negative impact on our financial condition and our ability to develop our current product candidates, or any additional product candidates, if developed.

Financial Operations Overview

Revenue

To date, we have not generated any revenue from product sales or any other source and do not expect to generate any revenue from the sale of products for the foreseeable future. If our development efforts for reloxaliase or other product candidates that we may develop in the future are successful and result in marketing approval or collaboration or license agreements with third parties, we may generate revenue in the future from a combination of product sales or payments from such collaboration or license agreements.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for our research activities, including our drug discovery efforts and the development of our product candidates, which include:

 

employee-related expenses, including salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation expense;

 

costs incurred under agreements with third parties, including CROs, that conduct research and development, preclinical studies and clinical trials on our behalf;

 

costs related to production of preclinical and clinical materials, including fees paid to CMOs;

 

consulting, licensing and professional fees related to research and development activities;

 

costs of purchasing laboratory supplies and non-capital equipment used in our research and development activities;

 

costs related to compliance with clinical regulatory requirements; and

 

facility costs and other allocated expenses, which include expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities, insurance, depreciation and other supplies.

We expense research and development costs as incurred. We recognize costs for certain development activities, such as clinical trials, based on an evaluation of the progress to completion of specific tasks using data such as clinical site activations, patient enrollment, or information provided to us by our vendors and our clinical investigative sites. Payments for these activities are based on the terms of the individual agreements, which may differ from the pattern of costs incurred, and may be reflected in our consolidated financial statements as prepaid or accrued research and development expenses. Nonrefundable advance payments for goods or services to be received in the future for use in research and development activities are deferred and capitalized, even when there is no alternative future use for the research and development. The capitalized amounts are expensed as the related goods are delivered or the services are performed.

 

15


 

The following summarizes our most advanced current research and development programs:

 

reloxaliase is our lead product candidate which we are developing for the treatment of hyperoxaluria. Substantially all of our research and development costs to date have been used to fund this program.

 

ALLN-346 is our second product candidate which we are developing for patients with hyperuricemia and CKD. We began incurring external research and development costs for this program in 2016.

We typically use our employee and infrastructure resources across our development programs. We track outsourced development costs by product candidate or development program, but we do not allocate personnel costs and other internal costs to specific product candidates or development programs.

The following table summarizes our research and development expenses by program (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Reloxaliase external costs

 

$

1,469

 

 

$

4,825

 

ALLN-346 external costs

 

 

418

 

 

 

1,113

 

Employee compensation and benefits

 

 

2,408

 

 

 

2,519

 

Other

 

 

351

 

 

 

671

 

Total research and development expenses

 

$

4,646

 

 

$

9,128

 

 

Research and development activities are central to our business model. Product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later-stage clinical trials. Since inception, we have incurred $84.9 million of external research and development costs for reloxaliase and $8.5 million of external research and development costs for ALLN-346. We expect that our research and development costs will continue to increase for the foreseeable future as we conduct and initiate additional clinical trials of reloxaliase, scale our manufacturing processes and advance development of ALLN-346.

The successful development of reloxaliase, ALLN-346 and other potential future product candidates is highly uncertain. Accordingly, at this time, we cannot reasonably estimate or know the nature, timing and costs of the efforts that will be necessary to complete the development of these product candidates. We are also unable to predict when, if ever, we will generate revenue and material net cash inflows from the commercialization and sale of any of our product candidates for which we may obtain marketing approval. We may never succeed in achieving regulatory approval for any of our product candidates. The duration, costs and timing of preclinical studies, clinical trials and development of our product candidates will depend on a variety of factors, including:

 

successful enrollment in, and completion of, clinical trials for reloxaliase;

 

successful data from our clinical program of reloxaliase that supports an acceptable benefit-risk profile of reloxaliase in the intended populations;

 

successful enrollment in, and completion of, clinical trials for ALLN-346;

 

establishing an appropriate safety profile for any potential future product candidates with studies to enable the filing of investigational new drug application, or INDs;

 

approval of INDs for any potential future product candidate to commence planned or future clinical trials;

 

significant and changing government regulation and regulatory guidance;

 

timing and receipt of marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities;

 

making arrangements with CMOs for third-party commercial manufacturing of our product candidates;

 

obtaining and maintaining patent and other intellectual property protection and regulatory exclusivity for our product candidates;

 

commercializing the product candidates, if and when approved, whether alone or in collaboration with others;

 

acceptance of the product, if and when approved, by patients, the medical community and third-party payors; and

 

maintenance of a continued acceptable safety profile of the drugs following approval.

 

16


 

A change in the outcome of any of these variables with respect to the development, manufacture or commercialization enabling activities of any of our product candidates could mean a significant change in the costs, timing and viability associated with the development of that product candidate.

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and other related costs, including stock-based compensation, for personnel in executive, finance, accounting, business development and human resources functions. Other significant costs include facility costs not otherwise included in research and development expenses, legal fees relating to patent and corporate matters and professional fees for accounting, auditing, tax and consulting services.

We expect that our general and administrative expenses will increase in the future to support continued research and development activities and potential commercialization of our product candidates. These increases will likely include increased costs related to the hiring of additional personnel and fees to outside consultants, attorneys and accountants, among other expenses.

Interest Income (Expense), Net

Interest income (expense), net, primarily consists of interest income earned on our cash and cash equivalents, and interest expense incurred on our credit facility, amortized debt discount related to the fair value of the warrants issued in conjunction with the advances under the credit facility and debt issuance costs.

Other Income (Expense), Net

Other income (expense), net, primarily consists of gain (loss) on foreign currency transactions.

Critical Accounting Policies and Use of Estimates

Our management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations is based on our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in our consolidated financial statements during the reporting periods. These items are monitored and analyzed by us for changes in facts and circumstances, and material changes in these estimates could occur in the future. We base our estimates on historical experience, known trends and events, and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Changes in estimates are reflected in reported results for the period in which they become known. Actual results may differ materially from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.  There have been no changes to our critical accounting policies appearing in the Annual Report filed on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019.

Our significant accounting policies are described in detail in the notes to our consolidated financial statements appearing in the Annual Report filed on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019. There have been no changes to our significant accounting policies.

 

17


 

Results of Operations

Comparison of the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

Dollar

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

Change

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

$

4,646

 

 

$

9,128

 

 

$

(4,482

)

General and administrative

 

 

2,878

 

 

 

2,431

 

 

 

447

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

7,524

 

 

 

11,559

 

 

 

(4,035

)

Loss from operations

 

 

(7,524

)

 

 

(11,559

)

 

 

4,035

 

Other income (expense):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest income (expense), net

 

 

(54

)

 

 

151

 

 

 

(205

)

Other expense, net

 

 

(7

)

 

 

(11

)

 

 

4

 

Other income (expense), net

 

 

(61

)

 

 

140

 

 

 

(201

)

Net loss

 

$

(7,585

)

 

$

(11,419

)

 

$

3,834

 

Research and Development Expense

Research and development expense decreased by $4.5 million from $9.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 to $4.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020. The following table summarizes our research and development expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

Dollar

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

Change

 

Clinical development external costs

 

$

1,208

 

 

$

3,614

 

 

$

(2,406

)

Manufacturing external costs

 

 

746

 

 

 

2,423

 

 

 

(1,677

)

Employee compensation and benefits

 

 

2,408

 

 

 

2,519

 

 

 

(111

)

Other

 

 

284

 

 

 

572

 

 

 

(288

)

Total research and development expenses

 

$

4,646

 

 

$

9,128

 

 

$

(4,482

)

 

The $4.5 million decrease in research and development expense was primarily attributable to the following:

 

Our clinical development external costs decreased by $2.4 million from $3.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 to $1.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020:

 

o

Our URIROX-1 costs decreased $1.2 million from $1.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 to $0.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020.  This study was completed in the fourth quarter of 2019 and we released top-line date in November 2019.  The costs incurred during the three months ended March 31, 2020 were related to closeout activities;

 

o

Our URIROX-2 costs decreased $0.9 million from $1.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 to $0.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020.  Based on the high rate of kidney stone passage and the UOx results observed in our completed URIROX-1 trial, and subsequent engagement with the FDA, we announced in February 2020 that we reached agreement in principal with the FDA on a streamlined design for URIROX-2. During the three months ended March 31, 2020, while we assessed revisions to the study design and sought additional funds to support the development of reloxaliase, we limited the opening of new trial sites for the ongoing URIROX-2 trial.  We submitted a protocol amendment for the revised study design in March 2020; and

 

o

We incurred $0.2 million and $0.4 million of costs for our 206 Study during the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.  This study was also completed in the fourth quarter of 2019 and we released top-line date in November 2019.

 

Our manufacturing external costs decreased by $1.7 million from $2.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 to $0.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020:

 

o

Reloxaliase manufacturing costs decreased $0.9 million from $1.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 to $0.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020.  During the three months

 

18


 

 

ended March 31, 2019, we incurred costs at our CMO for the production of clinical and engineering batches of reloxaliase for our Phase 3 clinical program, of which there were no similar costs for the three months ended March 31, 2020; and

 

o

ALLN-346 manufacturing costs decreased $0.6 million from $1.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 to $0.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020. The costs incurred during the three months ended March 31, 2019 included formulation and development costs to support our IND filed with the FDA in December 2019.

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expense increased by $0.4 million from $2.4 million for three months ended March 31, 2019 to $2.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020. The following table summarizes our general and administrative expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

Dollar

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

Change

 

Employee compensation and benefits

 

$

1,603

 

 

$

1,090

 

 

$

513

 

Consulting and professional services

 

 

728

 

 

 

773

 

 

 

(45

)

Market research and commercialization planning

 

 

 

 

 

176

 

 

 

(176

)

Other

 

 

547

 

 

 

392

 

 

 

155

 

Total general and administrative expenses

 

$

2,878

 

 

$

2,431

 

 

$

447

 

The increase in general and administrative expense was primarily attributable to the following:

 

Our employee compensation and benefits costs increased by $0.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020, primarily due an increase in employee salaries, wages, benefit costs and stock-based compensation.  Stock-based compensation increased $0.2 million from $0.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 to $0.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020; and

 

The increase in employee compensation and benefits is partially offset by a decrease in market research and commercialization planning costs.  Included in market research and development costs for the three months ended March 31, 2019, are costs for a study we initiated during the period with an independent third party to perform a market assessment for enteric hyperoxaluria.  There were no comparable costs for the three months ended March 31, 2020.

Interest Income (Expense), net

Interest income (expense), net consists of interest income earned on our cash and cash equivalents and interest expense charged on our outstanding debt.

 Liquidity and Capital Resources

Sources of Liquidity

We have funded our operations from inception through December 31, 2019 through gross proceeds of $96.0 million from sales of our convertible preferred stock, borrowings of $10.0 million under our credit facilities, net proceeds from our IPO of $67.0 million which was completed in November 2017, net proceeds from our registered direct offering of $9.4 million which was completed in June 2019 and net proceeds from our at-the-market equity facility of $2.6 million, which was utilized in December 2019. We had an additional $2.0 million of borrowings under our PWB Loan Agreement available to us up until December 31, 2019.  We did not access the additional borrowings prior to December 31, 2019 and we have no future borrowing capacity available under our PWB Loan Agreement. Our total cash and cash equivalents was $20.5 million at March 31, 2020.

 

19


 

Cash Flows

The following table provides information regarding our cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Net cash used in operations

 

$

(8,558

)

 

$

(9,810

)

Net cash used in investing activities

 

 

 

 

 

(84

)

Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities

 

 

(998

)

 

 

6

 

Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents

 

$

(9,556

)

 

$

(9,888

)

 

Net Cash Used in Operating Activities

The cash used in operating activities resulted primarily from our net losses adjusted for non-cash charges and changes in components of working capital.

Net cash used in operating activities was $8.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020 compared to $9.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019. The decrease in cash used in operating activities of $1.2 million was attributable to:

 

A decrease in net loss of $3.8 million, partially offset by;

 

an increase in non-cash items of $0.4 million resulting primarily from increases in stock-based compensation expense; and

 

a decrease of $3.0 million due to changes in the components of working capital, primarily related to changes in prepaid expenses, accounts payable and accrued expenses.

Net Cash Used in Investing Activities

We did not have any cash flow activity relating to investment activities during the three months ended March 31, 2020.  Net cash used in investing activities was $84,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2019 consisted of purchases of property and equipment.

Net Cash (Used in) Provided by Financing Activities

Net cash used in financing activities was $1.0 million for the three months ended Ma